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Investment Glossary




Active management

The constant supervision of a portfolio's holdings to maximize gains. Active managers rely on analytical research, forecasts, and their own judgment and experience in making investment decisions on what securities to buy, hold and sell.



Advisor (Adviser) 顧問

Person or company responsible for making mutual fund investments. Organization employed by a mutual fund to give professional advice on the fund's investments and asset management practices. Also known as investment advisor.



Aggressive growth funds 進取型增長基金

A mutual fund that attempts to achieve the highest capital gains. Investments held in these funds are companies that demonstrate high growth potential, usually accompanied by a lot of share price volatility. These funds are only for risk-seeking investors willing to accept a high risk-return trade-off.



Alpha 爾法系數

Widely considered to be a measure of the 'value added' by an investment manager. It is therefore regarded as a proxy for manager or strategy skill. Alpha is sometimes described as outperformance of a benchmark or the return generated by an investment independent of the market – what an investment would hypothetically achieve if the market return was zero. More specifically, alpha is sometimes described as the return of an investment less the risk-free interest rate. 



American Depository Receipt (ADR) 美國存托憑證

A negotiable certificate issued by a U.S. bank representing a specified number of shares (or one share) in a foreign stock that is traded on a U.S. exchange. ADRs are denominated in U.S. dollars, with the underlying security held by a U.S. financial institution overseas. 



Annualized Returns 年度化回報:

The return on an investment over a specified number of years, calculated as what an investor would have received each year if the cumulative return were distributed evenly over each year within the specified time period. 



Appreciation 增值

An increase in the value of an asset over time. The increase can occur for a number of reasons including increased demand or weakening supply, or as a result of changes in inflation or interest rates.



Asian funds 亞洲基金

A fund that invests primarily in the stocks of companies located in Asia. These funds appeal to investors who believe that Asia potentially represents a growth area, and want to capitalize on that growth.



Ask price 賣出價

Also known as the offering price, the ask price is the price at which a mutual fund's shares can be bought. The ask price is calculated by adding a fund's current net asset value per share to its sales charges, if any.

買進互惠基金股份的價錢,亦稱Offering Price。此價錢的計算方式為基金的淨資產值除以股數加上任何買賣費用。


Asset allocation 資產配置

An investment strategy that aims to balance risk and reward by apportioning a portfolio's assets according to an individual's goals, risk tolerance and investment horizon. The proportion of a portfolio that is allotted to various asset classes such as stocks, bonds and cash.



Asset allocation fund 資產配置基金:

Funds that seek to provide an optimal mix of stocks, bonds and cash at any given time. Some asset allocation funds maintain a specific proportion of asset classes over time, while others vary the proportional composition in response to changes in the economy and investment markets.



Automatic investment plan 自動投資計劃

An investment program that allows investors to contribute small amounts of money, such as $200 a month. For example, funds are automatically deducted from the investor's checking/savings account or paycheck and invested in a retirement account or mutual fund. 



Average annual total return 每年平均總回報

A standard measurement of fund performance that includes dividends, gains, and changes in share price.



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Back end load 贖回手續費

One of three possible sales charge schedules imposed by funds that charge fees. A special percentage charge assessed when mutual fund shares are redeemed. The amount of the fee usually varies depending on how long the investment is held--generally the longer the time period, the smaller the fee. Funds sold under several sales charge options usually refer to the shares sold with a back end load as class B shares. 

三款最常見的基金銷售收費種類之一。贖回共同基金時所收的特殊手續費,通常以百分比計算。收取的費用額通常取決於投資年期,一般投資年期越長,所收取的費用越少。基金系列的B shares通常會於售出時收取贖回手續費。


Balanced fund 平衡基金

A fund allocates its portfolio assets across stocks and bonds, normally in relatively equal proportions. This broader diversification across asset classes makes balanced funds lower risk than equity-only funds, but will not perform as well as equity-only funds in a bull market.



Basis point (BP) 點子

The smallest measure used in quoting yields and interest rate movements on fixed income securities, equal to 1/100th of 1%, or 0.01%. 

在定息證券的利率及孳息改變時使用的最細計算單位,等於 1% 的1/100,即 0.01%。


Bear market 熊市

A market in which prices of securities are generally declining. 



Benchmark index 基準指數

An index that serves as a reference against which the performance returns of a fund or portfolio is measured. For example, a U,S Equity Fund may be compared with the S&P 500 index to assess how it performs over time. 

衡量基金或投資組合回報業績的參考指數。例如,可能將一個美國股票基金與標准普爾 500 指數進行比較,以評估其隨時間變化的業績表現。


Beta 貝他系數

A measure of the magnitude of a portfolio's past share-price fluctuations in relation to the ups and downs of the overall market (or appropriate market index). The market (or index) is assigned a beta of 1.00, so a portfolio with a beta of 1.20 would have seen its share price rise or fall by 12% when the overall market rose or fell by 10%. 

量度投資組合過往在整體市場(或合適市場指數)上升及下跌時的股價波幅。市場(或指數)的貝他系數為 1.00 ,因此若投資組合的貝他系數為 1.20,當整體市場上升或下降 10%,則投資組合的股價將上升或下跌12%。


Bid price 買入價

Also known as the "sell" price, the bid price is the price at which a fund's shares are bought back by the fund. The bid price of a fund share is usually its net asset value


Blue-chip stocks 藍籌股

A term used to describe the common stocks of corporations with the strongest reputation for generating earnings and paying dividends. 



Blue chip stock fund 藍籌股基金

A mutual fund that consists of a portfolio of large or well known companies for the purposes of achieving growth. 



Bond 債券:

A debt security (IOU) issued by a corporation, government, or government agency in exchange for the money the bondholder lends it. In most instances, the issuer agrees to pay back the loan by a specific date and make regular interest payments until that date. 


Bond fund 債券基金

A type of mutual fund that invests in bond and preferred stocks, providing a stable income with low risk.



Bottom-up 「由下而上」的分析

An investment strategy that starts with a study of the fundamentals of an individual asset rather than with an assessment of macroeconomic issues. A bottom-up manager would focus on selecting individual properties or shares which offered good value and growth prospects.



Bull market 牛市

A market in which prices of securities are generally rising.


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Callable 可贖回

A securities feature of some bonds or convertible securities that allow the issuer to retire the issue prior to the original maturity date. If the current interest rate falls below the yield paid on the security, it is in the issuer's best interest to call and retire the security, then reissue at the new lower rate. To reflect this risk for the holder of the security, a callable security is usually priced lower than a non-callable security. 



Call risk 贖回風險

The possibility that bonds will be re-paid (or "called") prior to maturity. This possibility increases during periods of falling interest rates.



Capital appreciation 資本增值

A rise in the value of an asset based on a rise in market price. Essentially, the capital that was invested in the security has increased in value, and the capital appreciation portion of the investment includes all of the market value exceeding the original investment or cost basis. 


Capital appreciation funds 資本增值基金:

Funds that invest primarily in common stocks the managers believe will provide maximum capital appreciation. Capital appreciation funds often resort to aggressive investment techniques, such as rapid portfolio turnover, leveraging, and investing in unregistered securities in order to achieve their objectives. Also known as aggressive growth funds.


Capital gains 資本收益

The amount by which the proceeds from the sale of a capital asset exceed its original purchase price. 


Capital growth 資本增長

The increase in value of an investment when either its price rises or its profits are reinvested. 


Capitalization 資本化

The total dollar value of all stocks and bonds issued by a corporation. 



Certificate 持有證

A The physical document representing ownership of a stock or bond. 



Certificates of Deposit (CD) 存款證

A savings certificate entitling the bearer to receive interest. A CD bears a maturity date, a specified fixed interest rate and can be issued in any denomination. CDs are generally issued by commercial banks and are insured by the FDIC. The term of a CD generally ranges from one month to five years. 


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC) 延後銷售費用

A type of back end load sales charge, a contingent deferred sales charge is a fee charged when shares are redeemed within a specific period following their purchase. These charges are usually assessed on a sliding scale, with the fee reduced each year the shares are held. 


Certified financial planner (CFP) 金融理財師

Certified Financial Planner marks are certification marks owned by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc. These marks are awarded to individuals who successfully complete the CFP Board's initial and ongoing certification requirements. The designation shows that the financial planner has had training in budgeting, taxes, savings, and insurance.


Chartered financial consultant (ChFC) 特許金融顧問

Designation issued indicating completion of a program in financial, estate, and tax planning, in addition to investment management. 


Chartered life underwriter (CLU) 特許人壽保險人

Designation issued indicating training in life insurance and personal insurance planning. 


Closed-end fund 封閉式基金:

A fund with a fixed number of shares issued, and all trading is done between investors in the open market. The share prices are determined by market prices instead of their net asset value.



Commercial paper 商業票據

An unsecured, short-term debt instrument issued by a corporation, typically for the financing of accounts receivable, inventories and meeting short-term liabilities. Maturities on commercial paper rarely range any longer than 270 days. The debt is usually issued at a discount, reflecting prevailing market interest rates. 


Constant dollar investing 穩定貨幣投資

Investment strategy that do not fluctuate in price, such as savings accounts and money market funds. 


Consumer price index (CPI) 費者價格指數

A measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as transportation, food and medical care. The CPI is calculated by taking price changes for each item in the predetermined basket of goods and averaging them; the goods are weighted according to their importance. Changes in CPI are used to assess price changes associated with the cost of living. 

指衡量選定的一籃子消費品或服務(例如交通、食物、醫療)購買價格的指數。通過計算預先選定的一攬子商品的價格變動,對其取平均數,就能夠得出消費者價格 指數。依據商品的重要性,賦予其不同權重。消費者物價指數是反映與居民生活有關的產品及勞務價格統計出來的物價變動指標,通常作為觀察通貨膨脹水準的重要 指標。

Contractual plan 合約計劃: 

A type of accumulation plan where a mutual fund investor makes a firm commitment to invest a specified amount of money over a specific period of time.


Contrarian 逆向投資者

Investor who takes the reverse position from the majority. Term is often applied to those who do not believe a bull market will last. 


Convertible Bond 可換股債券

A bond with an option, allowing the bondholder to exchange the bond for a specified number of shares of common stock in the firm. A conversion price is the specified value of the shares for which the bond may be exchanged. The conversion premium is the excess of the bond's value over the conversion price. 

附有期權之債券,予債券持有人權利以換取指定數目之公司普通股股份。 換股價為債券可換取同等股數之現價總值。 換股溢價為可換股債券之現市價超出換股價之總值。


Convertible bond funds 可換股債券基金

Mutual funds that invest primarily in convertible bonds and/or convertible preferred stocks. 


Corporate bonds 企業債

Debt instruments issued by corporations. 



Corporate bond funds 企業債基金

A fund that invests primarily in corporate bonds. In general, corporate bond funds seek income over capital growth. 


Correlation 關性

Correlation measures the strength of the relationship between two investments. Combining low-correlating assets can help to diversify portfolio risk. Correlation values range between +1 and -1. Assets that are perfectly correlated, or move together in the same direction, have a correlation of +1. Those that exhibit an inverse relationship (moving in opposite directions) have a correlation of -1. A correlation of zero implies that there is no statistical relations. 

相關性用於衡量兩項投資之間關系的強弱程度。將相關性較弱的資産進行合並有助於分散投資組合的風險。相關性的數值在 +1 至 -1 的範圍內。若資産完全相關或同向變動,則相關性的數值爲 +1。若爲反向關系(反向變動),則相關性的數值爲 -1。若相關性的數值爲零,則表示兩者之間不存在任何關係。

Country funds 國家基金

A fund that invests primarily in the securities of a single country. In some cases, country funds also invest in securities outside the single country if those securities are expected to benefit by growth in that country. 


Country risk 國家風險

The potential for price fluctuations in stocks sold in foreign countries due to events (political, financial, etc.) in these countries. 


Credit rating 信貸評級

A measure of a bond issuer's creditworthiness as rated by an independent agency, such as Standard & Poor's or Moody's Investor Services. Ratings are set as a reflection of the perceived financial stability of the issuer, from AAA to D. Bonds rated Baa or higher by Moody's, or BBB or higher by S&P, are considered "investment grade". Conservative investors tend to select funds composed of all AAA rated bonds, or investment grade bonds. More aggressive investors, looking for high yields, are more interested in funds that invest in lower rated bonds. 


Credit risk 信用風險

The danger that a bond issuer's ability to repay what it owes will deteriorate. This danger usually prompts bond rating firms to downgrade the credit rating of company or municipality that issued the bond, sending the yield of the bond higher to justify the increased risk associated with this bond. 


Currency risk 貨幣風險

A risk that incurs when an investor buys into a mutual fund that invests in foreign markets. Any foreign currency could depreciate against home currency reducing the return achieved in the foreign currency when translated back to home currency.. 


Current yield 價息率: 

A return measure that indicates the amount of current income a bond provides relative to its market price. It is shown as: Coupon Rate divided by Price multiplied by 100%. For example, a bond with a $1,000 face value and a coupon of 5% purchased at $900 has a current yield of 6.56% (50 / 900). When the market price of a bond declines, its current yield rises. Conversely, when the market price rises, the current yield declines.

用作量度債券回報率,為債券之現時利息比對現市價,程式為票息率/價格×100﹪。舉例來說,一個面值$1,000、票息5%的債券若以$900買進,其 實計利息為6.56% (50 / 900)。當一個債券市值下降時,實際利息會相對上漲。相反的若市值上漲,則實際利息會下降。

Custodian 託管人

The organization (usually a bank) that keeps custody of securities and other assets of a fund. The custodian is a third party, independent from the fund promoter's organization. The custodian holds the fund's cash accounts, settles its trades and ensures that the fund is fulfilling its investment objectives.


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Deferred sales charge 延後銷售費用

A type of back end load sales charge, a deferred sales charge is a fee charged when shares are redeemed within a specific period following their purchase. 


Depreciation 貶值

A decline in an investment's value. 


Derivatives 衍生工具

Financial contracts such as futures, options and various securities that offer 'synthetic' access to an underlying asset such as a commodity, stock market or fixed income security. The price movements of a derivative generally follow the price movements of the underlying asset but derivatives generally require only small amounts of capital (margin) to gain exposure to the underlying asset. 


Distribution 派息

The payments of dividends or capital gains. Funds are required to distribute gains (if any) to shareholders at least once per year. 


Distributor 經銷商

The organization arranging for the sale of fund shares either directly to the public or through intermediaries, such as financial advisers. 


Diversification 分散風險

The inclusion of a number of different investment vehicles in a portfolio in order to increase returns or be exposed to less risk. Diversification works best when the returns of the securities are varied, so that losses incurred by securities falling in price are offset by gains of those rising in price. By nature, mutual funds are a diversified investment. 


Dividends 股息

A payment made to common and preferred shareholders out of a company's after-tax earnings. Dividends can be received from the ownership of stock or from mutual funds. Mutual fund share holders have the option to reinvest dividends automatically in order to purchase more shares. 



Dividend yield 股息率

The percentage that is derived through dividing the indicated annual dividend by the current price of an investment. For funds, indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past year. For stocks, indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Dollar cost averaging 平均成本法: 

An investment strategy that entails making regular payments into a mutual fund and having earnings automatically reinvested. Investors benefit from this strategy as they can buy more shares at lower prices during bear market. Since mutual funds permit the buying of fractional shares, the fixed amount will acquire more shares when the fund decreases in price, and fewer shares when the price rises. 


Domicile 註冊地

Refers to the legal base of the fund. Location where fund is registered, but not necessarily where it is administered.


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Emerging markets 新興市場

Normally refers to newly industrialized markets of the developing world. The Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Latin America are commonly referred to as emerging markets. 



Emerging markets funds 新興市場基金

Fund that invest primarily in the stocks of companies in, or doing business in, developing countries and emerging markets. Emerging market funds usually have an investment objective of long-term growth and are generally considered aggressive stock funds. 


Equity 股本

Ownership of the company in the form of shares of common stock.. 



Equity income funds 股票收入基金:

Mutual funds that focus on large-company stocks that pay big dividends. As a result, they can be less risky than other types of stock funds. 


Ethical fund 道德基金

A fund that only invests in the securities of firms meeting certain social standards. For example, an ethical fund might exclude securities of companies that are known to practice discrimination, that operate in certain countries, or that produce specific products such as alcohol, tobacco, or nuclear weapons. 


Eurodollar CDs 歐洲存款證

CDs issued by U.S. banks that have branches in other countries. These tend to have higher yields than domestic CDs. 


European stock fund 歐洲股票基金:

A fund that invests primarily in the stock of Western European companies. 


Ex-dividend date 除息日

The day on which the price of a security is reduced to reflect dividend payout. The first day on which the buyer of a security will no longer be entitled to receive the recently announced dividend payment.. 


Expenses 費用

Fund shareholders pay expenses that go towards the operation and management of the fund. Expenses are often less than 1% of the investor's holdings in the value. Many investors choose to compare expenses as a factor in choosing which fund to invest in.



Expense ratio 費用比率

The operating costs, management fees, administrative fees and all other costs incurred by the fund expressed as a percentage of the fund's total asset. Funds with lower expense ratios are able to distribute a higher percentage of gross income returns to shareholders. 


Explanatory memorandum 基金說明書

See prospectus


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Face value 面值:

The value of a financial instrument as stated on the instrument. Interest is calculated on face/nominal value. 


Family of funds 家庭式基金

A mutual fund company which offers investors a choice of two or more mutual funds; with different objectives or investment strategies. Often shareholders have the option to easily exchange shares between different funds in the same family over the phone with no fee. 


Financial adviser 理財顧問

One who provides financial advice or guidance to customers for compensation. Financial advisors can provide many different services, such as investment management, income tax preparation and estate planning. 



Financial planner 理財策劃師

A qualified investment professional who helps individuals and corporations meet their long-term financial objectives by analyzing the client's status and setting a program to achieve that client's goals. Financial planners specialize in tax planning, asset allocation, risk management, retirement and/or estate planning.



Fixed income security 定息證券

Investment vehicles that offer a fixed periodic return. This term is usually used in reference to government, corporate or municipal bonds, which pay a fixed rate of interest until the bonds mature, and to preferred stock, which pay a fixed dividend. Fixed income securities offer the guarantee of a fixed return, but do not offer an investor much, if any, potential for growth. 


Fixed-income fund 定息基金

Another term for a bond fund


Flexible portfolio fund 靈活組合基金

A fund that can invest in stocks, bonds and cash in whatever proportion the manager deems appropriate, providing the manager total flexibility to achieve maximum returns. Flexible portfolio funds are sometimes called asset allocation funds. 


Front-end load 首次認購費

One of three possible sales charge schedules imposed by funds that charge fees. A sales fee paid by an investor at the time of subscription to the fund company or their distributors, and can range from 3% to 8% of the purchase amount.


Fully invested 全面持倉

The investment of nearly all available assets in securities other than short-term securities (such as savings and money market accounts). When a fund is said to be "fully invested", it usually implies that the fund's manager is confident that the securities markets will be improving. 


Fund administrator (administrative agent) 基金管理人(行政代理):

Performs fund's administrative functions. The administrator calculates the value of the fund. This calculation is based upon the value of the assets in the fund's portfolio. The calculation produces a price known as the Net Asset Value (NAV). The NAV becomes the fund's dealing price.


Fund manager 基金經理

The person(s) responsible for implementing a fund's investing strategy and managing its portfolio trading activities. A fund can be managed by one person, by two people as co-managers and by a team of three or more people. Fund managers are paid a fee for their work, which is a percentage of the fund's average assets under management. 


Fund of funds (multi-funds, multi-advisor funds) 组合型基金

A fund that invests in other funds. Fund-of-funds managers seek to reduce risk by investing in other funds thus avoiding the highs and lows of any single fund. These funds offer a single entry fee into the funds they are investing in which is usually far lower than the combined entry fees of each fund. Fund of funds usually offer great diversification. The disadvantage of funds of funds is that they add another layer of management expenses on to shareholders who are effectively paying for two fund managers. 

投資於其他基金的基金。组合型基金的基金經理投資其他基金來減低風險,從而避免單一基金的價格波動。基金為他們的投資的一系列基金提供單一的入場費,其入場費通 常遠低於投資者獨立購入各基金的總費用。组合型基金分散風險的能力很高。但组合型基金的缺點是,基金單位持有人需額外支付组合型基金的管理費用,暗示投資 者需要分別支付组合型基金及其買入基金的費用。

Futures 期貨

A future is a derivative instrument that involves a contract to buy or sell an asset (stock index, commodity, currency, fixed income or other security) for delivery at a future date at a specific price. This is a practice commonly used by fund managers of aggressive growth mutual funds. 


Futures fund 期貨基金

See managed futures fund.


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Global depository receipt (GDR) 環球存託憑證

Receipt for shares in mainly emerging-market-based companies. GDRs are traded on numerous exchanges around the world, enabling investors access to emerging market companies without having to face custodian and other administrative delays that are often associated with the exchanges in emerging markets. 



Global mutual fund 環球互惠基金

Mutual funds that invest in both the U.S. and foreign countries. Also known as world funds



Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) 政府國家抵押貸款協會: 

A government corporation that provides primary mortgages through bond issuances. Its securities are called Ginnie Maes. 

經由發行債券提供一級市場抵押貸款的政府公司,其發行的轉付證券俗稱Ginnie Maes。


Going long 長倉

Buying a security in the normal manner. (This is a term most often used in derivative investing). 



Going short 短倉:

Selling a security that the seller does not have. This is done by borrowing security at a certain price that is expected to have dropped by the time the security has to be paid for. 



Growth fund 增長基金:

A fund that invests for growth by seeking out smaller companies with good earnings growth. These funds tend to be more volatile than most other equity mutual funds. 




Guaranteed fund 保證基金:

A guaranteed amount is paid to the fund's shareholders if they hold the units until a specific date in the future. A guarantee can include the initial capital investment plus a fixed return.



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Hedging 對沖:

A strategy that seeks to reduce, or even eliminate, the extraneous risk in investment, such as currency risk in an international equity investment. In this situation, a fund manager would buy the currency forward at an agreed price. (Hedging is not to be confused with hedge funds, which are very different.)

一種在於減低甚至可以消除外來風險的策略,好像是投資在國際股份時的貨幣風險。就以貨幣風險為例,基金經理會以約定價格買入遠期外匯來對沖貨幣波動的風險。 (對沖與對沖基金不能混為一談,因為雙方有着非常大的差異。)


Hedge fund 對沖基金

A private investment partnership in which the fund manager is able to take both long and short positions. These funds typically use leverage and employ a large number of derivative instruments in their investments.



High-yield (or junk) bond 高收益債券(又稱垃圾債券):

Security that pays higher yield to compensate for the greater risk of holding a non-investment grade bond. (An investment-grade bond is one that rating agencies will give BB or higher.)



High-yield bond fund 高收益債券基金:

A fund that invests primarily in high yield bonds, also referred to as junk bonds. High yield bond funds generally seek high returns and tend to be one of the riskier bond fund investments.


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Inception date 基金成立日期:

The date a fund was first made available to investors.



Income 收益(或入息):

Periodic interest or dividend distributions obtained from a fund.



Income fund 收益基金:

A fund that invests primarily in fixed income securities and/or high-yielding utility, telephone, and blue-chip stocks. Capital appreciation is not a consideration for these funds.



Index 指數:

Indicators used to provide a point of reference for evaluating a fund's performance. The most common indices for stock funds are the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the S&P 500 Index. For fixed-income funds it is the Lehman Brothers Aggregate Bond Index.



Index fund 指數基金:

A fund that invests in a collection of securities intended to match that of a broad-based index (NOTE: It is not possible for investors to actually invest in the actual index, such as the S&P 500). In general, index funds seek the same or a slightly better return that the index they mirror. Index funds tend to charge low administrative expenses.



Inflation risk 通脹風險:

The possibility that the value of assets or income will be eroded by inflation (the rising cost of goods and services). Inflation risk is often mentioned in relation to conservative fixed income funds


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Junk bonds 垃圾債券:

Bonds rated BB or below by Standard & Poor's Corporation and Ba or below by Moody's Investor Service. Junk bonds tend to be more volatile and higher yielding than bonds with higher quality ratings.


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Large-caps 大型股:

Stocks of companies with market capitalizations of more than $1 billion. Large-caps tend to be well established companies, so that their stocks entail less risk than smaller-caps, but which also offer less potential for dramatic growth.



Leverage 槓桿:

Borrowing capital or using derivatives to maximize return on an investment. A leveraged investment is subject to a multiplied effect in the profit or loss resulting from a comparatively small change in price. Leverage offers the opportunity to achieve enhanced returns, but at the same time typically involves greater risk and can result in a loss that is proportionally greater than the amount invested.



Liquidity 流動性:

The ease with which an investment can be converted into cash. Shares in a fund are generally considered highly liquid investments because they can be sold on any business day for their then current value.



Loaded fund 收費基金:

A mutual fund that charges a sales fee on top of other fees. Loads do not mean a fund is managed better.



Long-term bond funds 長期債券基金:

Mutual funds that invest in bonds that mature in more than 10 years.


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Managed futures fund 管理期貨基金:

A fund investing in futures and derivatives of commodities, indices, interest rates, currencies and related products.

They usually employ quantitative or technical analysis and systematic investment processes.



Management fee 管理費:

The amount a fund pays to its investment adviser for its services. The average annual fee industry wide is about one half of or one percent of fund assets. A fund's management fee must be listed in its prospectus.



Market capitalization 市場總值:

Also referred to as "market cap." Market capitalization is a measure of a corporation's value, calculated by multiplying the number of outstanding shares of common stock by the current market price per share. Market capitalization is usually grouped into four main categories: large-cap, mid-cap, small-cap, and micro-cap.



Market risk 市場風險:

Refers to the potential of loss that is possible, as a result of the short term volatility of the stock market. Owning mutual funds, due to their diversification, shield an investor to some market risk that a stock holder may be vulnerable to.



Market timing 選時交易:

Attempting to time the purchase and sale of securities to coincide with ideal market conditions. Mutual fund investors may switch from stock funds to bond funds to money market funds as the strength of the economy and interest rate directions change.



Maturity date 到期日:

The date on which the principal amount of a bond is to be paid in full.



Micro caps 微型股:

Stocks that are capitalized at under $50 million. Micro-caps tend to be new, relatively untested corporations that can offer greater growth potential than larger caps, but also entail greater risk.



Mid caps 中型股:

Stocks which are capitalized at between approximately $500 million and $1 billion. Mid-caps are often considered to offer more growth potential than larger-caps (but less than small caps) and less risk than small-caps (but more than large-caps).



Mid-cap fund 中型企業股票基金:

A fund that invests primarily in the stocks of companies with a medium market capitalization (mid caps).



Money market instruments 貨幣市場工具:

Include short term investments such as CDs, Treasury bill, and short term commercial bonds. Money market funds invest in these types of short term investments; as a result, there is little to no risk of losing any portion of the principle investment.

包括短期投資 如存款證,短期國債及短期商業債券。貨幣市場基金會投資在這類型的短期投資工具。失去本金的風險十分低。


Money market fund 貨幣市場基金:

Mutual fund that invests typically in short-term government and company loans and CDs. These tend to be lower-yielding, but less risky than most other types of funds. Also known as money funds.



Mortgage-backed security 按揭證券:

A security that returns principal and interest monthly as payments are received on the underlying mortgages. They are debt obligations that represent claims to the cash flows from pools of mortgage loans, most commonly on residential property. Mortgage loans are purchased from banks, mortgage companies, and other originators and then assembled into pools by a governmental, quasi-governmental, or private entity.



Multi-fund 多重基金:

See Fund of funds.



Municipal bond 地方政府債券:

A bond issued by a municipality to finance schools, highways, hospitals, airports, bridges, water and sewer works, and other public projects.



Municipal bond funds 地方政府債券基金:

Mutual funds that invest in tax-exempt bonds issued by states and local governments.



Mutual fund (or unit trust) 互惠基金(單位信託):

A pooled investment vehicle, which invests in portfolios of stocks, bonds and/or cash managed by an investment company on behalf of many investors with a specific objective.


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Negative yield curve 負孳息曲線:

See Inverted yield curve.



Net asset value (NAV) 資產淨值:

The current market worth of a mutual fund's share. A fund's net asset value is calculated daily by taking the funds total assets, securities, cash and any accrued earnings, deducting liabilities, and dividing the remainder by the number of shares outstanding.



Net assets 淨資產:

Net assets are the excess of assets over liabilities.



Note 票據:

Another word for short-term bond.


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Offshore center 離岸中心:

Used to signify financial centres which offered a more tolerant tax regime than those 'onshore'. Today, offshore centres are the legal domiciles for most internationally marketed funds. The administrative functions of internationally marketed funds are performed in the offshore centres.



Open-ended fund 開放式基金:

A mutual fund that continues to sell shares to investors, and will buy back shares when investors wish to s redeems. Units are bought and sold at their current NAV.



Option 期權:

Gives the holder the right to buy (call) or sell (put) a security or asset at a fixed price within a specified period or at a specified date.



Over-the-counter market 場外交易:

Also known as OTC, means the dealers directly bargaining themselves. In the OTC market, dealers are using telephone and computer network to trade, rather than using the exchange trading system. OTC markets do not have an automatic mechanism for disclosing price to public, and can process non-standardized transactions. Bonds, foreign exchange, forward contracts, swap and some non-standardized derivatives are primarily trading through OTC.

又稱店頭市場,指交易商直接議價的交易方式。在場外市場,交易商通過電話及電腦網絡,而不是交易所的系統進行買賣。場外市場沒有向大眾自動披露交易價格的 機制,而且可進行非標準化的交易。債券、外匯、遠期合約、掉期(swaps)以及一些非標準化衍生工具,都主要透過場外市場交易。

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Price earning (P/E) ratio 市盈率:

Ratio of the price of a stock to the total earnings of the company. A common measure of how expensive a stock is. P/E is an indicator of market expectations about a company's prospects; the higher the P/E, the greater the expectations for a company's future growth in earnings.



Penny stock 蚊型股:

An inexpensive stock, also known as micro-cap stock. This term usually refers to stocks costing less than $1 per share, but it may also refer to stocks under $5.00 too. Many aggressive growth mutual funds have portfolios consisting of many cheap stocks, with the belief that cheap stocks have greater growth potential.



Pension fund 養老基金:

Fund investing on behalf of an organization to provide income for the fund's members upon retirement.



Performance 績效:

A measure of how well a fund is doing over time. Two commonly used mutual fund performance measures are yield (which measures dividends) and total return (which measures dividends plus changes in net asset value). Please be reminded that past performance is not a guaranteed of future performance.



Pooling 集資:

Pooling is the basic concept behind mutual funds. A fund pools the money of thousands of individual and institutional investors who share common financial goals. The fund uses this pool to buy a diversified portfolio of investments.



Portfolio 投資組合:

The securities of a Fund. A fund's portfolio may include a combination of stocks, bonds, and money market securities.



Portfolio manager 投資組合經理:

The individual who is responsible for managing a mutual fund's assets.



Portfolio turnover 投資組合周轉率:

A measure of the trading activity in the fund's portfolio of investments. In other words, how often securities are bought and sold.



Positive yield curve 正孳息曲線:

When short-term interest rates are lower than long-term rates. This is the usual situation where investors would expect to gain a higher rate of return for holding on to a bond for a longer period of time.




Prepayment risk 提前償還風險:

The possibility that, as interest rates fall, homeowners will refinance their home mortgages, resulting in the prepayment of GNMA securities, and possible decline in net asset values of GNMA Funds.



Prospectus (or explanatory memorandum for unit trusts) 章程(或單位信託基金的說明備忘錄):

The official document that describes a mutual fund. It contains information on such subjects as the fund's investment objectives, policies, services and fees. Prospective investors should always read the mutual fund's prospectus before sending money.


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Qualitative analysis 質化分析:

A securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on non-financial data such as management style and capacity, business cycles, product development, labor relations, operation risks and expenses.



Quantitative analysis 量化分析:

Quantitative analysis is based on numeric analysis and statistics using key financial ratios and economic indicators. Financial models and simulation are built objectively to identify potential investment candidates.



Quantitative Easing (QE) 量化寬鬆:

A government monetary policy occasionally used to increase the money supply by buying government securities or other securities from the market. Quantitative easing increases the money supply by flooding financial institutions with capital, in an effort to promote increased lending and liquidity.



Quartile Ranking 四分位数排名:

A term often used in fund performance. For example, funds are referred to as being in the top or bottom quartile, meaning that this is where they have been ranked in relation to the other funds in their category.


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Real return 實質回報:

The actual return earned on an investment after factoring in the rate of inflation.



Rebalancing 平衡調配:

Investment strategy in which you adjust your mix of investments periodically to keep the proper percentage holdings in each asset class (asset allocation), based on your tolerance for risk.



Record date 截止過戶日期:

The date on which a shareholder must officially own a stock's shares in order to receive a company's declared dividend or to vote on company issues.



Redemption 贖回:

Liquidation of shareholding in a mutual fund by selling back to the mutual fund.



Redemption price 贖回價:

The price at which a mutual fund's shares are redeemed (bought back) by the mutual fund. The redemption price is the approximate per share NAV at redemption, minus any fees that the fund deducts at that time, such as redemption fee. This price is shown as the "bid" price on newspaper.



Regional funds 區域基金:

Mutual funds that invest in one specific region of the globe.



Registrar and transfer agent 過戶登記代理:

Responsible for keeping records of, and for communicating with, a fund's shareholders. Typically this involves canceling and issuing the fund's shares.



Repurchase agreement (REPO) 回購協議:

A type of short-term loan much used in the money markets, whereby the seller (dealer) commits to buy a security back from the purchaser (investor) at a specified price at a designated future date. Purchaser earns interest competitive with money market rates.



Return on equity (ROE) 股東回報率:

The amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity calculated by dividing net income (after preferred stock dividends, but before common stock dividends) by average shareholders' equity. Return on equity indicates to shareholders how effectively their money is being employed.



Risk-adjusted return 經風險調整後回報:

A measure of how much risk is involved in producing a particular level of return. It is a return achieved per unit of risk or the risk associated with a particular level of reward, typically represented by the Sharpe ratio. Improving the risk-adjusted return depends either on increasing returns and maintaining the level of risk or maintaining the level of returns and lowering the associated risk.



Risk tolerance 風險承受水平:

The willingness of an investor to tolerate the risk of losing money for the potential to make money.



R-squared R平方:

A measure of how much of a portfolio's performance can be explained by the returns from the overall market (or a benchmark index), values range from 0 to 100. If a portfolio's total return precisely matched that of the overall market or benchmark, it's R-squared would be 1.00. If a portfolio's return bore no relationship to the market's returns, its R-squared would be 0. A higher R-squared value will indicate a more useful beta figure.

衡量投資組合的表現中多少可歸因於整體市場(或基準指數)的回報,程度以 0 至 1.00 計。若投資組合的總回報準確緊貼整體市場或基準的總回報,則投資組合的判定系數為 1.00 。若組合的回報跟市場的回報無關,則判定系數為 0 。較高的R平方值表示啤打係數beta較準確。


Russell 2000 羅素2000指數:

The Russell 2000 is by far the most common benchmark for mutual funds that identify themselves as "small-cap". It is an index of the bottom 2,000 stocks in the Russell 3000 Index in US.


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S&P 500 標準普爾 500指數:

A board based unmanaged index focuses on the large-cap sector of the US market and often considered representative of the stock market in general. It covers 500 industrial, utility, transportation and financial companies of the US markets (mostly NYSE issues). The index represents about 75% of NYSE market capitalization and 30% of NYSE issues.

The S&P 500 Index由美國市值最大的 500 間公司所組成的指數,被公認為衡量美國股市整體的健全程度的指引。它涵蓋了美國市場500家最大約工業、公用事業、交通運輸和金融機構(主要在紐約證交所 交易)。這指數覆蓋約75%紐約證券交易所上市公司的市值和30%紐約證券交易所的公司數目。這指數屬非託管並不能直接進行投資。


S&P 500 index fund 標準普爾 500指數基金:

A fund that invests primarily in the stocks included in the S&P 500 Index. Sometimes referred to as blue-chip stocks, they tend to be of large, well-established companies.

一支主要投資於S&P 500指數成分股的基金。成分股也被稱為「藍籌股」,指他們於行業中擁有重要地位、市值大、完善經營、高知名度的公司。


Secondary market 二級市場:

Market wherein bonds, stocks, or other securities are bought and sold after they're already issued.



Sector fund 行業基金:

A type of mutual fund that invests in the stocks of companies representing a specific industry, such as technology, utilities or health care; also known as the theme fund. Sector funds entail more risk, but may offer greater potential returns than funds that diversify their portfolios.



Securities 證券:

Stocks, bonds, money market or rights to ownership, such as options, typically sold by a broker.



Securities exchange 證券交易所:

Tightly regulated marketplace where stocks, bonds, and cash are traded.



Sharpe ratio 夏普比率:

The Sharpe ratio is a risk-adjusted method for measuring a fund's performance. A ratio of excess return per unit of risk calculated by subtracting the risk-free rate (for example the return from a US Treasury bill) from the portfolio's total return and then dividing this by its standard deviation. The higher the number the better the fund’s risk adjusted return.



Short selling 沽空:

A trading technique whereby an investment manager arranges to borrow stock from a stock lender with a view to selling it and buying it back at a lower price in the future.



SICAV 盧森堡注冊可變資本投資公司:

SICAV stands for Societe d'Investissement a Capital Variable (an investment company with variable capital). SICAVs are common fund structures in Luxembourg.

SICAV (Societe d'Investissement a Capital Variable)是一家可變資本投資公司。SICAVs在盧森堡是一種非常普遍的基金結構。


Small caps 細價股:

Generally it is a stock with a market capitalization of between $500 million and $2 billion. In general, small caps tend to be less established companies that offer more growth potential than larger capitalized companies, but which also entail greater risk.



Small company growth fund 小型公司增長基金:

A fund that seeks aggressive growth of capital by investing primarily in stocks of relatively small companies with the potential for rapid growth. Many small cap funds come under the heading of an aggressive growth mutual fund.



Socially responsible funds 社會責任基金:

Mutual funds that invest in companies that don't pollute the environment or sell arms. They will not own tobacco or alcohol stocks, nor invest in companies with poor employee relations.



Sovereign debt 主權債務:

A debt obligation of any government, including political sub-divisions, local authorities, government agencies, government-owned, controlled, sponsored or guaranteed corporations and supra-nationals.



Sortino ratio 索提諾比率:

A measure of risk-adjusted performance that indicates the level of excess return per unit of downside risk. It differs from the Sharpe ratio in that it recognizes investors' preference for upside ('good') over downside ('bad') volatility and uses a measure of 'bad' volatility as provided by semi-deviation – the annualized standard deviation of the returns that fall below a target return, say the risk free rate.



Specialty funds 特定對象基金:

Funds that invest in one specific industry or industry sector.



Speculation 投機:

Unlike investment, risk is not a consideration or speculator gambles on a risky investment in hopes of a high payoff down the road.



Standard deviation 標準差:

A measure of the degree to which a fund's return varies from its previous returns or from the average of all similar funds. The larger the standard deviation, the greater the likelihood (and risk) that a security's performance will fluctuate from the average return.



Stock fund 股票型基金:

A fund that invests primarily in stocks.



Style 風格:

The overarching strategy used by investment managers to set asset allocation and choose individual securities for investment. The investment style of a fund can be broadly drawn, such as "international bonds", or finely tuned, such as "mid-cap value stocks that pay steady income", which helps set expectations for long-term performance potential.



Subscription 認購:

Investor willingness to purchase some assets or financial products (such as the newly listed stocks or funds).



Switching 轉換:

The movement/ exchange of assets from one fund to another. An investor will switch mutual funds when their investment objectives change or because of market conditions. This is usually done within a family of funds, but can be done across different fund houses. The charge for same fund house switching is usually lower than cross fund house switching.


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Tax-deferred investment 遞延課稅投資項目:

The return of an investment, including its dividends, interest and unrealized capital gains, is not taxed until money is withdrawn, usually at retirement.



Technology fund 科技基金:

A fund that invests primarily in the stocks of companies engaged in the technology industry.



Top down 由上而下:

An investment approach that first seeks to define major economic and industry trends, and then proceeds to identify specific companies that are likely to benefit from those trends, the opposite of "bottom-up."



Total expense ratio (TER) 總開支比率:

Amount shareholders pay as costs for an investment in a mutual fund. TER is calculated as a percentage of total investment. They include all operating expenses as well as annual management fee of the fund.



Total return 總回報:

A measure of a fund's performance that takes these factors into account: income dividends, capital gains distributions, reinvestment of distributions and share price appreciation/depreciation.



Transfer 過戶:

The process of changing ownership of an account within the same fund.



Transfer agent 過戶代理:

Transfer agent: The organization employed by a mutual fund to prepare and maintain records relating to the accounts of its shareholders. Some funds serve as their own transfer agents.



Treasuries 國庫券:

Debt obligation issued by the U.S. government and backed by its full faith and credit. Treasuries include: Treasury Bills (T-Bills), Treasury Notes and Treasury Bonds.

國庫券是指以國家信用為擔保發行證券。美國國庫券是美國財政部發行的政府債券, 包括短期國庫券(T-bill)、中期國庫券和長期國庫券。


Treasury Bill 短期國庫券:

A fixed-income security issued by the U.S. Government with maturity less than one year.



Trust 信託:

A legal arrangement in which an individual (the trustor) gives fiduciary control of property to a person or institution (the trustee) for the benefit of beneficiaries.



Trustee 受託人:

In the trust arrangements, the trustee, in accordance with the Trust Deed, acts on behalf of the beneficiary to manage the underlying assets. Trustee may be an individual or a company, so long as they are not beneficiaries.



Turnover rate 週轉率:

The rate at which the fund buys and sells securities each year. For example, if a fund's assets total $100 million and the fund bought and sold $100 million of securities that year, its portfolio turnover rate would be 100%.


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U.S. treasury fund 美國國庫券基金:

A fund that invests primarily in financial instruments issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury or its agencies.



UCITS fund 可轉讓證券集體投資計劃基金:

UCITS stands for Undertaking for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities. The UCITS directive was agreed by the European Union member states in order to create a single passport for the sale of funds throughout Europe. A UCITS fund is a mutual fund or an open-ended investment company that is domiciled in Europe, and conforms to the various UCITS regulations.



Umbrella fund 傘子基金:

Fund structure containing sub-funds (or compartments) with different investment objectives, focusing on different markets. Umbrella funds enable investors to switch between sub-funds for a low fee and to pursue different investment strategies within the same fund.



Underwriter 包銷商:

The organization that acts as the distributor of a mutual fund and sells shares to investors or through broker/dealers.



Unit trust 單位信託基金:

See mutual fund.



Unrealized gain or loss 未變現損益:

Increases or decreases in the prices of securities held by the fund.


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Value investing 價值投資:

The investment style of attempting to buy underpriced stocks that have the potential to perform well and increase in price.



Volatility 波幅:

A measure of risk used most often in the investment industry. The magnitude by which the price of a security fluctuates as market conditions change. Funds whose price moves sharply are said to have high volatility. Those with stable prices have low volatility. It is usually calculated as ‘standard deviation’ and expressed as annualized volatility – the standard deviation on a yearly basis.

波幅是投資界最普遍採用量度風險的指標。簡單來說,波幅是量度一項投資價格變化過程中偏離平均價位的距離。基金的價格大幅波動被認為具有較高的波動性; 價格穩定的基金波動性則較低。波幅通常用標準差計算,並以「年度化波幅」表示,即逐年計算的標準差


Vulture fund 禿鷹基金:

A term commonly used to refer to a private equity or hedge fund that Invests in a distressed securities (with low valuation) of the market. Its name comes after how vultures dispose dead bodies. Once this area of the market is rising, the fund's value should grow rapidly.



Value-at-risk(VAR) 風險值:

A widely used risk measurement technique that calculates the maximum loss that would be experienced in a day or some other pre-specified time horizon in the event of an increase in volatility or an adverse correlated move in market prices at a pre-specified level of probability.


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World funds 世界基金:

Mutual funds that invest in securities from a number of countries, including the US. Also known as global funds.


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Yield 收益率/孳息:

The income return on investments. This differs from total return in that the income does not include price changes. Stock yields are expressed in dividends. Bonds have three yields: coupon (the annual payments paid by the issuer relative to the bond's par value), current (the bond interest rate as a percentage of the current price of the bond), and yield to maturity (an estimate of what an investor will receive if the bond is held to its maturity date).

持有證券的現金收益率。此收益不包括價格變化,與總回報率有所區別。在股票,收益率表示股息率。債券則三種收益率: 票面息率(指發債機構按照本金每年向債券持有人分派的利息的百分比)、目前收益率(以當前債券價格計算的利息百分比)、到期收益率(估計持有債券到期,投資者將收到的收益率)。


Yield curve 孳息曲線:

A graph depicting yield as it relates to maturity. If short-term rates are lower than long-term rates, it is called a positive yield curve. If short-term rates are higher, it is called a negative, or inverted, yield curve. If there is little difference, it is called a flat yield curve.



Yield to maturity 到期收益率:

The effective annual rate of return earned by a bond if held to maturity. This rate takes into account the amount paid for the bond, the length of time to maturity, and assumes coupon payments can be reinvested at the yield to maturity.


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Zero coupon bond 零票息債券:

Bond issued at a discount which accrues interest that is paid in full at maturity.


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Risk Statement and Disclaimer:
By using this information, you confirm that you accept the Terms of Use as set out in https://www.ifund.com.hk. Investment involves risk. Past performance is not indicative of future performance. Fund prices may move down or up, may fluctuate dramatically, and may become valueless. It is as likely that losses will be incurred rather than profit made as a result of buying and selling funds. Some funds are denominated in RMB which are currently not freely convertible, and are thus subject to risks associated with RMB including RMB foreign exchange risk, RMB hedging risk, offshore RMB ("CNH") market risk and RMB trading and settlement of fund units risk. Funds which are invested in emerging markets and smaller companies may also involve a higher degree of risk and are usually more sensitive to price movements. Before making any investment decision, investors should carefully read the prospectus and the offering document for further details. Investors should undertake their own research and study before trade or invest. Investors should carefully consider whether trading or investments are suitable in light of their own financial positions and investment objectives, and understand that they shall be wholly responsible for their investments. Investors are advised to seek independent financial and professional advice before trade or invest. The information herein does not constitute investment advice, or an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security, investment product or service nor a distribution of information for any such purpose.  The website contents are prepared and issued by Noble Apex Advisors Limited. Informational sources are considered reliable but you should conduct your own verification of information contained herein.  This website and advertisements contained herein have not been reviewed by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong.

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